In 1864, during the Civil War, Quakers traveled to Phillips County, Arkansas to build an orphanage for slave children. For the next fifty years, bolstered by donations of black soldiers and the support of former slaves, the orphanage transformed and bloomed. Southland College -- the first institution of higher learning west of the Mississippi River for African Americans -- would graduate hundreds of African Americans with teaching degrees.
Its flourishing testified to the "overwhelming longing for literacy felt by former slaves," writes the University of Arkansas Libraries site, and "addressed the acute need for educated teachers and professionals around the country."
Arkansas university libraries have now digitized a collection of Southland College papers. "It's been a privilege to collaborate in the retelling of Southland College's remarkable history in this format," said the curator Catherine Wallack."The story is both hopeful and heartbreaking, and it belies so many stereotypes about the Arkansas Delta."
For those interested, I would recommend the historian Thomas C. Kennedy's Southland College, A History of Southland College: The Society of Friends and Black Education (University of Arkansas Press, 2009), an absorbing account of the school's origins, growth, and closing.